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上海市高二英语期末考试(2017年上册)在线免费考试

Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in the blanks to make the passage coherent. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word. For the other blanks, fill in each blank with one proper word. Make sure that your answers are grammatically correct.
Special Days Around the World
Teacher’s Day
【1】 people in many countries celebrate World Teachers’ Day on 5th October, in Argentina it is on 11th September— the anniversary of the death of former president, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento in 1888.【2】 Samiento believed passionately in was the importance of education: he wrote ‘Schools are the very basis of civilization’. Children traditionally write poems for their teachers and give them an apple, make a cake or buy flowers. In Vietnam, Educators’ Day is in November. Many students visit their former teachers in their homes 【3】 (give) them presents, or give news about themselves. And at some schools in India, senior students become teachers, and teachers become students for the day!
World Book Day
In many countries, Book Day 【4】 (fall) on 23rd April every year. It originated in Catalonia in 1923 when booksellers decided to honour the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes who died on that day in 1616. In 1995, World Book Day became an international event,【5】 (celebrate) reading and books. People exchange presents—usually a book and a rose. There are also events such as writing competitions, and in Madrid there is a public reading of Cervantes’s greatest work— Don Quijote —【6】 lasts 48 hours! In the UK and Ireland, all schoolchildren receive a £1 book token(礼品劵), and many children now dress up as 【7】favourite character from fiction!
Respect for the Aged Day
Grandparents’ Day is popular in many countries, but in Japan— a country where nearly 30 percent of the population are over 60 —older people【8】 (treat) with special respect. The third Monday of September is ‘Respect for the Aged Day’, which became a national holiday in 1966. Everyone has a day 【9】 school or work and people organize celebrations for the older people of the village or community where they live. Young people dress up in traditional clothes. They sing and dance and there will be a meal specially 【10】(prepare) for the older people. Nowadays, people also visit relatives and the older people in their families, for a three-day weekend.

【答案】
【1】 While
【2】 What
【3】 to give
【4】 falls
【5】 celebrating
【6】 which
【7】 their
【8】 are treated
【9】 off
【10】 prepared
【解析】
这是一篇广告布告类阅读。文章介绍了世界上的一些特殊的节日。
【1】考查连词。句意:虽然在许多国家,人们在10月5日庆祝世界教师节,而在阿根廷,教师节是9月11日——前总统多明戈·福斯蒂诺·萨米恩托1888年逝世的周年纪念日。文中表示“虽然”,所以填While。
【2】考查主语从句。句意:萨米恩托坚信教育的重要性,他写道:“学校是文明的基础。” ____2____ Samiento believed passionately in是一个主语从句,引导词在从句中作宾语,所以填What。
【3】考查不定式。句意:许多学生去他们以前的老师的家里,给他们礼物,或告诉他们关于自己的消息。作目的状语,用不定式,所以填to give。
【4】考查时态。句意:在许多国家,每年的4月23日是读书日。表示经常或反复发生的动作,用一般现在时,主语Book Day是第三人称单数,谓语动词用单数,所以填falls。
【5】考查非谓语动词。Celebrate的逻辑主语是World Book Day,它们之间是主动关系,用现在分词作状语,所以填celebrating。
【6】考查非限制性定语从句。____6____ lasts 48 hours!是一个非限制性定语从句,关系词在从句中作主语,指代整个主句内容,所以填which。
【7】考查代词。句意:现在许多孩子装扮成他们的最喜欢的小说人物!文中表示“他们的最喜欢的小说人物”,所以填their。
【8】考查时态和语态。older people与treat之间是被动关系,用被动语态,表示经常或反复发生的动作,用一般现在时,所以填are treated。
【9】考查句意理解。句意:每个人都有一天不上学或不工作,人们为他们居住的村庄或社区的老年人组织庆祝活动。文中表示“不上学或不工作”,所以填off。
【10】考查非谓语动词。Prepare的逻辑主语是a meal,它们之间是被动关系,用过去分词作定语,所以填prepared。

Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

The meaning of silence varies among cultural group. Silence may be 【1】, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, uneasiness, or worry. Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every 【2】 with conversation. Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a person’s needs. Many native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of 【3】 among people, just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. Therefore, when a person from one of these culture is speaking and suddenly stops, what may be 【4】 is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures, silence is a call for 【5】.
Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with 【6】 among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show 【7】 between parties about the topic under discussion. However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority.
Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the 【8】 meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be experiencing. Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not 【9】 too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. A nurse who understands the healing 【10】of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.

【答案】
【1】 E
【2】 I
【3】 A
【4】 C
【5】 B
【6】 K
【7】 G
【8】 J
【9】 D
【10】 F
【解析】
这是一篇议论文。文章主要讲了沉默的含义因文化群体而异。
【1】句意:沉默可能是深思熟虑的,也可能是一个人无话可说时的空虚。故选E。
【2】句意:因此,可以尝试用对话来填补每一个空白。故选I。
【3】句意:许多印第安人珍视沉默,认为它是人与人之间交流的基本组成部分,就像一些传统的中国人和泰国人所做的那样。故选A。
【4】句意:因此,当来自这些文化中的一个人在说话时突然停了下来,可能暗示的是这个人想让听者在继续之前考虑已经说了什么。故选C。
【5】句意:在这些文化中,沉默是一种反思。故选B。
【6】句意:其他文化可能会以其他方式使用沉默,尤其是在处理人与人之间的冲突或与拥有不同权力的人之间的关系时。故选K。
【7】句意:例如,俄罗斯人、法国人和西班牙人可能会用沉默来表示双方对正在讨论的话题的一致意见。故选G。
【8】句意:护士和其他护理人员需要意识到,当他们遇到病人可能正在经历的个人焦虑时,沉默可能意味着什么。故选J。
【9】句意:护士应该认识到自己对沉默的个人和文化建构,这样病人的沉默才不会过早地打断或不必要地继续下去。故选D。
【10】句意:一个懂得沉默的治疗价值的护士可以用这种理解来帮助护理来自他们自己和其他文化的病人。故选F。

When you say that someone has a good memory, what exactly do you mean? Are you saying that the person has fast recall or that he or she________ information quickly? Or maybe you just mean that the person remembers a lot about her or his childhood. The truth is that it is __________ to say exactly what memory is. Even scientists who have been studying memory for decades say they are still trying to ________ exactly what it is. We do know that a particular memory is not just one thing stored somewhere in the brain.________, a memory is made up of bits and pieces of information stored all over the brain. Perhaps the best way to ________ memory is to say that it is a process—a process of recording, storing, and getting back information. Practice and repetition can help to ________ the pieces that make up our memory of that information.
Memory can be ________ affected by a number of things.________ nutrition can affect a person’s ability to store information. Excessive alcohol use can also weaken memory and cause permanent ________ to the brain over the long term. A vision or hearing problem may affect a person’s ability to notice certain things, thus making it ________ to register information in the brain.
When people talk about memory, they often________short-term memory and long-term memory. If you want to call a store or an office that you don’t call often, you look in the telephone book for the number. You dial the number, and then you forget it! You use your short-term memory to remember the number. Your short-term memory lasts about 30 seconds, or half a minute.________, you don’t need to look in the telephone book for your best friend’s number, because you already know it. This number is in your long-term memory, which __________information about things you have learned and experienced through the years.
Why do you forget things sometimes? The major reason for forgetting something is that you did not learn it well enough ________. For example, if you meet some new people and right away forget their names, it is because you did not ________ the names at the first few seconds when you heard them.
【1】A. collects B. processes C. publishes D. absorbs
【2】A. necessary B. important C. difficult D. convenient
【3】A. figure out B. take out C. put out D. give out
【4】A. After all B. Instead C. By contrast D. Besides
【5】A. recall B. refresh C. describe D. decrease
【6】A. lose B. organize C. identify D. strengthen
【7】A. positively B. negatively C. actively D. directly
【8】A. Poor B. Adequate C. Special D. Various
【9】A. benefit B. offence C. effect D. damage
【10】A. easier B. more impressive C. harder D. more convenient
【11】A. refer to B. apply for C. come across D. break down
【12】A. Furthermore B. However C. Consequently D. Otherwise
【13】A. leaks B. transmits C. checks D. stores
【14】A. in the middle B. at the end C. in the beginning D. ahead of time
【15】A. restore B. record C. replace D. respond

【答案】
【1】 D
【2】 C
【3】 A
【4】 B
【5】 C
【6】 D
【7】 B
【8】 A
【9】 D
【10】 C
【11】 A
【12】 B
【13】 D
【14】 C
【15】 B
【解析】
这是一篇科普类阅读。文章主要讲了什么是记忆力以及造成记忆力差的原因。
【1】考查动词辨析。句意:当说一个人有很好的记忆力时,到底是什么意思?是说这个人可以很快地回忆起某件事情还是能很快的吸收信息?A. collects收集; B. processes处理;C. publishes出版;D. absorbs吸收,故选D。
【2】考查形容词辨析。句意:事实是很难说清楚到底记忆力是什么。A. necessary必要的;B. important重要的;C. difficult困难的;D. convenient方便的,故选C。
【3】考查动词短语辨析。句意:甚至连研究了几十年记忆力的科学家们也说他们还在努力去解决记忆力到底是什么。A. figure out解决;B. take out取出;C. put out熄灭;D. give out分发,故选A。
【4】考查副词辨析。句意:我们知道的是特定的记忆不仅仅是储存在大脑的某个地方,而是由存在整个大脑中的信息碎片组成的。A. After all毕竟; B. Instead代替;C. By contrast相比之下;D. Besides此外,故选B。
【5】考查动词辨析。句意:或许描述记忆力最好的方式是说它是一个过程,一个记录,储存和找回信息的过程。A. recall回忆;B. refresh更新;C. describe描述;D. decrease减少,故选C。
【6】考查动词辨析。句意:练习和重复可以帮助加强组成记忆的信息碎片。A. lose失去;B. organize 组织;C. identify识别;D. strengthen加强,故选D。
【7】考查副词辨析。句意:记忆力可能会受很多事情的消极影响。A. positively肯定地;B. negatively消极地;C. actively积极地;D. directly直接地,故选B。
【8】考查形容词辨析。句意:缺乏营养会影响一个人储存信息的能力。A. Poor贫穷的;B. Adequate充足的;C. Special特别的;D. Various各种各样的,故选A。
【9】考查名词辨析。句意:过度饮酒也会弱化记忆力,长期下来回造成永久性的大脑损伤。A. benefit利益;B. offence犯罪;C. effect影响;D. damage损害,故选D。
【10】考查形容词辨析。句意:视觉或听力问题会影响注意某些特定事情的能力,这样也使信息在大脑中的储存更加困难。A. easier更容易;B. more impressive印象更深刻;C. harder更难的; D. more convenient更方便,故选C。
【11】考查动词短语辨析。句意:当人们提到记忆时,往往指的是短期记忆和长期记忆。A. refer to提到;B. apply for申请;C. come across偶然遇到;D. break down发生故障,故选A。
【12】考查副词辨析。句意:然而,你不需要在电话簿里找你最好朋友的电话号码,因为你已经知道了。下文与上文之间表示转折,对比,所以用however。 A. Furthermore此外;B. However然而;C. Consequently因此;D. Otherwise否则,故选B。
【13】考查动词辨析。句意:电话号码是你的长期记忆,长期记忆就是多年来你已经了解的事情。A. leaks泄漏;B. transmits传播;C. checks检查;D. stores存储,故选D。
【14】考查固定短语辨析。句意:为什么有时会遗忘呢?遗忘主要是因为一开始就没有学好。A. in the middle在中间;B. at the end最后;C. in the beginning开始;D. ahead of time提前,故选C。
【15】考查词辨析。restore恢复,修复;record记录;replace代替;respond反应。如果你遇到一些人,马上就忘记了他们的名字,那是因为你在听到他们名字的前几秒钟根本就没有记下来。

When you’re abroad, trying to find out who to tip is never straightforward and neither is trying to work out the exact number. To make things even more complicated, the rules for tipping vary greatly from country to country. Also, within each country the rules can change, so what was appropriate last time you visited your favourite country may be completely inappropriate the next time you go. However, here are some general guidelines which might help you on your journeys.
You face your first dilemma as soon as you land at the airport— the taxi ride. Taxi drivers generally do expect tips, but rather than there being an exact amount, people round up the fare or just tell the driver to keep the change.
Your next encounter is with the hotel porter and you know he’s expecting a tip, but the problem is trying to figure out how much. It seems that in many countries round the world $1 per bag would be an appropriate amount.
Then, of course, you have to eat. In some countries such Ireland, Brazil, Poland and Portugal, the customary tip in restaurants is 10-15% unless a service charge is included, so the first rule of thumb is always check the bill. In other countries such as France, Italy, Germany, Australia and Spain, where a 10-15% service charge is either very common or compulsory, you may want to leave an additional tip if you think the service was particularly good, but it certainly isn’t obligatory. However, in some countries it may seem strange if you do leave a tip. In Japan, for example, the waitress might be insulted if you tipped her. In Thailand, if you left a tip, the restaurant staff probably wouldn’t be offended, but you might be pursued down the street by someone thinking you’d forgotten to take your change. In New Zealand, although it’s unlikely anyone would chase after you, you’d definitely get some odd looks if you left a trip.
And your problem with tipping isn’t over when you leave the restaurant. Next you discover the tour guide, the hairdresser and the toilet attendant are all expecting a tip as well, but again, how much? Perhaps the best option in these cases is to ask the local people what is acceptable or observe what others do. Of course, you could simply play safe and tip everyone you meet.
【1】The word “dilemma” (in paragraph 2) is closest in meaning to _____________.
A. a difficult situation B. an early opportunity
C. a high expectation D. an exact explanation
【2】What does the writer suggest tourists do in countries like Brazil?
A. Never tip waiters or waitresses because they may be offended.
B. Play safe and leave a tip about 12% of the bill after each meal.
C. Make sure whether a service charge is included in the bill before giving tips.
D. Always check whether you have kept all your change before leaving the restaurant.
【3】People needn’t tip waiters in _____________.
A. Ireland and France B. Germany and Japan
C. Poland and Italy D. Thailand and New Zealand
【4】What is the passage mainly about?
A. Advantages of tipping. B. Rules of tipping.
C. Possible origins of tipping. D. Different opinions on tipping.

【答案】
【1】 A
【2】 C
【3】 D
【4】 B
【解析】
这是一篇说明文。文章主要讲了各个国家付小费的规则。
【1】词义猜测题。下文Taxi drivers generally do expect tips, but rather than there being an exact amount, people round up the fare or just tell the driver to keep the change.说出租车司机一般都希望得到小费,但人们不会给小费的确切数额,而是把车费凑成整数,或者直接告诉司机不用找了。由此推断出上文的意思是你一到机场就面临第一个困境——乘坐出租车。“dilemma”的意思是“一个困难的局面”,故选A。
【2】细节理解题。答案定位在倒数第二段In some countries such Ireland, Brazil, Poland and Portugal, the customary tip in restaurants is 10-15% unless a service charge is included, so the first rule of thumb is always check the bill.(在一些国家,如爱尔兰、巴西、波兰和葡萄牙,餐馆里的传统小费是10-15%,除非包括服务费,所以第一法则总是检查账单。)由此可知作者建议游客在像巴西这样的国家在给小费之前,要确定帐单中是否包含服务费,故选C。
【3】推理判断题。答案定位在倒数第二段In Thailand, if you left a tip, the restaurant staff probably wouldn’t be offended, but you might be pursued down the street by someone thinking you’d forgotten to take your change. In New Zealand, although it’s unlikely anyone would chase after you, you’d definitely get some odd looks if you left a trip.(在泰国,如果你留下了小费,餐馆的工作人员可能不会生气,但你可能会被认为是忘记找零钱的人,在街上被追着走。在新西兰,虽然不太可能有人追你,但如果你外出旅行,肯定会受到一些奇怪的目光。)由此推断出在泰国和新西兰,人们不必给服务员小费,故选D。
【4】主旨大意题。However, here are some general guidelines which might help you on your journeys.是全文的主题句,结合全文内容,可知这篇文章主要讲了各个国家付小费的规则,故选B。
细节理解题的解题思路:
细节理解题就是我们常见的wh-题,它们大多是根据文章中的具体信息如事实、例证、原因、过程、论述等进行提问的。抓住文段中的事实和细节是做好该题型的关键,也是做好其它类型问题的基础。该题型几乎都可以在文章中直接找到与答案有关的信息,或是其变体。在一篇短文里大部分篇幅都属于这类围绕主体展开的细节,做这类题一般采用寻读法,即先读题,然后带着问题快速阅读短文,找出与问题和选项有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行分析对比,找出答案。例如小题2,答案定位在倒数第二段In some countries such Ireland, Brazil, Poland and Portugal, the customary tip in restaurants is 10-15% unless a service charge is included, so the first rule of thumb is always check the bill.(在一些国家,如爱尔兰、巴西、波兰和葡萄牙,餐馆里的传统小费是10-15%,除非包括服务费,所以第一法则总是检查账单。)由此可知作者建议游客在像巴西这样的国家在给小费之前,要确定帐单中是否包含服务费,故选C。

There are thirty-four bridges on the Thames River in London, the following are among the most famous ones.
Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge has stood over the River Thames in London since 1894 and is one of the finest, most recognizable bridges in the World. It is the bridge in London you may see in movies and on advertising writing for London. Tower Bridge is the only Thames Bridge that can be raised. It used to be raised about 50 times a day, but nowadays it is only raised 4 to 5 times a week.
London Bridge
The construction of the first stone London Bridge started in 1176 and finished years later. Houses and shops were once built on the bridge, which made the road so narrow that it was often jammed with people, horses and carts. A ‘keep left’ rule was made in 1733 to keep the traffic moving. This became the rule of the road in Britain. In 1757 the old bridge was pulled down and a new one was built in 1831. Interestingly, that one was pulled down again in 1967 but rebuilt in Lake Havasu City, USA, as a tourist attraction. The present London Bridge was opened in 1973.
Millennium Bridge
The Millennium Bridge is a bridge for walkers. It was built to connect the Tate Modern Art Gallery to the City and St Paul’s Cathedral (圣保罗大教堂) in 2000. Thousands of people rushed to see the new bridge. Almost immediately after opening, the bridge had to be shut because of the dangerous waving caused by too many visitors. It has now been reopened. The bridge is about 320 meters, costs 16 million pounds to build and only takes walkers.
Westminster Bridge
Westminster Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames between Westminster and Lambeth. The present bridge, opened in 1862, is the second on the site and took the place of an earlier bridge opened in 1750. The British romantic poet, William Wordsworth, wrote a famous poem “Composed Upon Westminster Bridge” in the autumn of 1802.
Want to know more about the bridges on the Thames River? Click here www.bridgesinbritain.com.
【1】Which of the following is NOT TRUE according to the passage?
A. The 1831 London Bridge is now in the USA.
B. Tower Bridge is much less frequently lifted today than before.
C. Cars and buses are not allowed to cross Millennium Bridge.
D. Westminster Bridge is for walkers only.
【2】The Passage is most probably taken from a ________.
A. school report B. website article
C. teenage magazine D. science fiction
【3】What can we learn from the passage?
A. William Wordsworth wrote many poems of the bridges on the Thames River.
B. Millennium Bridge wasn’t built strong enough so that it had to be pulled down and rebuilt.
C. That all the traffic is kept left in Britain was from a rule of an old London Bridge.
D. Tower Bridge is the symbol of London because it is the first bridge on the Thames River.

【答案】
【1】 D
【2】 B
【3】 C
【解析】
这是一篇广告布告类阅读。文章从不同的方面介绍了伦敦泰晤士河上的著名的四座大桥——塔桥、伦敦桥、千禧桥以及威斯敏斯特桥。
【1】细节理解题。答案定位在Westminster Bridge部分Westminster Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames between Westminster and Lambeth.(威斯敏斯特桥是横跨泰晤士河,连接威斯敏斯特和伦敦朗伯斯区的公路桥和人行桥。)由此可知D选项“威斯敏斯特桥只供行人使用。”的描述错误,故选D。
【2】推理判断题。答案定位在最后一段Want to know more about the bridges on the Thames River? Click here www.bridgesinbritain.com.可知这篇文章很可能摘自一篇网站文章,故选B。
【3】推理判断题。根据最后一段"The British romantic poet,William Wordsworth,wrote a famous poem…1802."只提到英国浪漫主义诗人威廉•华兹华斯,于1802年的秋天写了一首关于威斯敏斯特桥的著名的诗;并没有提到他写了许多有关泰晤士桥的诗,故排除A;根据Millennium Bridge部分中的"the bridge had to be shut because of the dangerous waving caused by too many visitors."可知,由于客流量过大,会产生危险,所以伦敦的千禧桥曾经被关闭;文中并没有提到千禧桥是由于不够结实而被拆了重建,故排除B;根据Tower Bridge部分"Tower Bridge has…and is one of the finest,most recognizable bridges in the world"只提到塔桥是世界上最好的,最知名的桥梁之一,并没有提到因为塔桥是伦敦泰晤士河上的第一座桥,而使得它成为伦敦的象征,故排除D;根据London Bridge部分"A‘keep left'rule was made in 1733 to keep the traffic moving.This became the rule of the road in Britain"讲到了英国靠左行走的道路交通规则正是源于伦敦桥上的交通规则,故选C。
通过对关键词,关键短语或者是关键的句子的把握是解决推理判断题的重要解题方法之一,它们往往隐藏着深层的意思。小题1,答案定位在Westminster Bridge部分Westminster Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames between Westminster and Lambeth.(威斯敏斯特桥是横跨泰晤士河,连接威斯敏斯特和伦敦朗伯斯区的公路桥和人行桥。)其中a road and foot traffic bridge是关键词,由此可知D选项“威斯敏斯特桥只供行人使用。”的描述错误,故选D。

Mountain regions are not just playgrounds for the richer citizens on the planet, however. The disappearing snows of Mount Kilimanjaro are a worrying sign that nowhere is safe from the adverse effects of human actions. The United Nations has identified three main areas that need to be addressed to ensure the future safety of the world’s mountains. These are: the protection of mountain ecosystems, the encouragement of peace and stability in mountain regions, and assistance for mountain people to maintain their ways of life.
From the busy cities of India to the farmlands of California, more than half the world’s population is dependent on mountains for their fresh water supply. Global warming, deforestation, mining and heavy farming seriously damage breakable mountain ecosystems and put vital fresh water sources at risk.
Mountain regions host a large proportion of the world’s wars. From Afghanistan to the Balkans and the Andes to many parts of Africa, territorial(领土的) and drug related conflicts have damaging effects on the local environment and the lives of the local people. Fighting makes essential tasks such as farming impossible. Land mines make large areas of potential farming ground unusable. Also schools, roads, bridges and other important infrastructure(基础设施) are left in ruins.
Mountain people are among the poorest, least represented groups on the earth. They face many hardships and each day can be, “a test of survival”. Damage to mountain ecosystems worsens their situation and leaves them even more unprotected to disease and ‘natural’ disasters such as floods and landslides. It’s been recommended that forest profit should be reinvested in mountain communities and the people living there should be given a stronger political voice. Their fate is in many ways directly connected with that of people living at sea level.
There is an old motto for visitors to the countryside which advises them to leave nothing but footprints. It is still as relevant today as it always was. Unfortunately, the size of our footprints seems to be getting larger.
【1】What the writer discussed in the previous sections is most probably about .
A. mountain ecosystems B. mountain regions
C. mountain people D. mountain sports
【2】The word “adverse” (paragraph 1) is closest in meaning to “__________”.
A. direct B. harmful
C. positive D. powerful
【3】Wars have directly brought the following effects EXCEPT __________.
A. inadequate supply of fresh water B. impossible farming
C. mountain people’s poor living condition D. ruined infrastructure
【4】Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A. Mountain people have enough political voice to protect themselves.
B. More money should be raised to establish mountain communities.
C. Worsened ecosystems put mountain people’s lives under threat.
D. Visitors to mountains have left nothing but large footprints.

【答案】
【1】 D
【2】 B
【3】 A
【4】 C
【解析】
这是一篇说明文。文章主要讲了乞力马扎罗山的雪消失是一个令人担忧的迹象。联合国确定了三个主要领域,旨在确保世界山区未来的安全。
【1】推理判断题。答案定位在第一段Mountain regions are not just playgrounds for the richer citizens on the planet,however.可知山区不仅仅是地球上更富裕的公民的游乐场,故之前的部分应该是介绍爬山运动的,故选D。
【2】词义猜测题。下文The United Nations has identified three main areas that need to be addressed to ensure the future safety of the world’s mountains.说联合国已经确定了三个需要解决的主要领域,以确保世界山区未来的安全。由此推断出The disappearing snows of Mount Kilimanjaro are a worrying sign that nowhere is safe from the adverse effects of human actions.意思是乞力马扎罗山正在消失的积雪是一个令人担忧的迹象,表明任何地方都无法免受人类活动的不利影响。故adverse意为不利的,A. direct直接的;B. harmful有害的;C. positive积极的;D. powerful强大的,故选B。
【3】细节理解题。答案定位在第三段Fighting makes essential tasks such as farming impossible. Land mines make large areas of potential farming ground unusable. Also schools, roads, bridges and other important infrastructure(基础设施) are left in ruins.(战争使务农等基本任务变得不可能。地雷使大片潜在的农地无法利用。学校、道路、桥梁和其他重要的基础设施也被毁。)A选项“淡水供应不足”,文中没有提到,故选A。
【4】推理判断题。根据答案定位在倒数第二段Damage to mountain ecosystems worsens their situation and leaves them even more unprotected to disease and ‘natural’ disasters such as floods and landslides. It’s been recommended that forest profit should be reinvested in mountain communities and the people living there should be given a stronger political voice.可知生态系统恶化使山区人民的生命受到威胁,故选C。

Driving each other crazy
There’s a well-known joke: A woman is driving down a motorway and her husband phones her on her mobile. ‘Darling, be careful!’ he screams, ‘I’ve just heard there’s a car driving the wrong way on the motorway near where you are.’ ‘It’s not just one car,’ she says, ‘there are hundreds of them!’
And here’s another one: a man is driving his daughter and they are stuck in traffic. The little girl says, ‘I have a question.’ ‘What is it?’ asks her father. ‘When you’re driving, are YOU ever the stupid idiot?’
【1】 Is it because we recognize some truth in them? A lot of people seem to think that men and women do display quite different characteristics when it comes to driving, and in general, both male and female drivers tend to be quite critical of the opposite sex.
‘Men are too confident in their own abilities. They never listen, they never need a map. They’re always sure they know the way,’ says Cathy, whose husband rarely lets her drive the car. ‘They tend to drive too close to the car in front and they’re incredibly impatient. If there’s a car in front, they have to pass it even if it doesn’t make a difference to their overall speed. I think it’s some sort of territorial thing.【2】.
What do men think about women?【3】‘Women passengers can’t keep quiet,’ says Paul, a retired architect. ‘You know: “You’re going too fast”, “Can you see that pedestrian?”, “Didn’t you see that traffic light?” or “I feel sick. Can’t you go straight?” There’s always some comment.’
Despite men’s generally high opinion of their own driving skills, a report published in 2004 came down firmly in favour of women drivers.【4】There included driving within the speed limits, overtaking safety and conducting different strategies successfully, including signaling in good time, reversing and braking quickly. They also had a better awareness of other drivers on the road. There was only one aspect of driving where women did not perform as successfully as men and that was—no surprise—the ability to park their cars.
A. They have to be king of the road and everybody else on the road is an idiot
B. So what’s the point of these jokes?
C. Interestingly, one of their main concerns is about women as passengers.
D. There is no doubt that women are considered better passengers than men.
E. According to the report, women score more highly than men on almost all counts.
F. Why do we laugh at these jokes?

【答案】
【1】 F
【2】 A
【3】 C
【4】 E
【解析】
这是一篇议论文。文章主要讲了尽管男性普遍对自己的驾驶技术评价很高,但2004年发布的一份报告却坚定地支持女性驾驶员。
【1】下文Is it because we recognize some truth in them?说是因为我们在他们身上发现了一些事实吗?该空引出下文,F选项“我们为什么会笑这些笑话?”切题,故选F。
【2】上文If there’s a car in front, they have to pass it even if it doesn’t make a difference to their overall speed. I think it’s some sort of territorial thing.说如果前面有一辆车,他们必须超过它,即使这对他们的整体速度没有影响。我认为这是领土问题。该空承接上文,A选项“他们必须是道路之王,而路上的其他人都是白痴”切题,故选A。
【3】上文What do men think about women?说男人怎么看女人? 下文Women passengers can’t keep quiet, says Paul, a retired architect.说退休建筑师保罗说,女乘客不能保持安静。该空承上启下,C选项“有趣的是,他们的主要担忧之一是女性乘客。”切题,故选C。
【4】上文Despite men’s generally high opinion of their own driving skills, a report published in 2004 came down firmly in favour of women drivers.说尽管男性普遍对自己的驾驶技术评价很高,但2004年发布的一份报告却坚定地支持女性驾驶员。下文There included driving within the speed limits, overtaking safety and conducting different strategies successfully, including signaling in good time, reversing and braking quickly.说其中包括限速驾驶、超车安全以及成功实施不同策略,包括及时发信号、快速换挡和刹车。该空承上启下,E选项“根据这份报告,女性在几乎所有方面的得分都高于男性。”切题,故选E。

Directions: Read the following passage. Summarize the main idea and the main points of the passage in no more than 60 words. Use your own words as far as possible.
Getting up early has been regarded as a good habit since ancient times. Many years ago, people thought that if we went to bed early and get up early, we would be energetic the whole day. Nowadays, people still hold the same view. So, getting up early is of great importance to us all.
In fact, morning is the best time of a day. In the morning, the air is the freshest and people are usually in the best conditions. Many of us may have the experiences that we memorize some things more quickly and accurately in the morning than any other time of the day.
In addition, if we get up early and do some morning exercise or only take a short walk in the morning, without doubt we can build our bodies and become much healthier. That is why many people getting up early do physical exercise year after year.
Also, we will have enough time to make a plan and get ready for our work or study of the day if we get up early. However, if we get up late, we will probably have to do everything in a great hurry, making it in a mess.
Let us remember getting up early is a good habit and try our best to keep it. If we stick to getting up early every day, we will certainly benefit a lot from it.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

【答案】The passage tells us that getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot. Firstly, our brain works faster and more correctly. What’s more, we can be increasingly healthy by doing some morning exercise or taking a short walk. Lastly, it enables us to make a good preparation for the day.
【解析】
这是一篇概要写作。
根据文本内容,这是一篇讲早起是一个好习惯,这将使我们受益匪浅的说明文,要求对其进行概要写作。因此,我们必须首先弄清每一段落的主要内容是什么。
第一段开头第一句话“Getting up early has been regarded as a good habit since ancient times.”是段落的中心句,同时也点明了文章的主题,后面分条说明了早睡早起的好处。第二段主要讲的是早晨是一天中最好的时间。第三段主要在讲此外,如果我们早起做一些晨练或只在早上散步,毫无疑问,我们可以强壮我们的身体,变得更健康,其中第一句“In addition, if we get up early and do some morning exercise or only take a short walk in the morning, without doubt we can build our bodies and become much healthier.是段落的中心句。第四段主要讲了此外,如果我们早起,我们将有足够的时间来制定一个计划,为我们一天的工作或学习做好准备。弄清了每段的主要内容后,我们就按照概要写作的几个原则对其进行连接,在连接段落时需要添加必要的连接词使其通顺连贯即可。

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.
【1】所有在场的人都反对花这么多的钱买这幅画。(object)
【2】他工作了一整天,没有吃任何东西,这使得他筋疲力尽。(which)
【3】你们中有多少人将报名参加下周的校运动会?(sign)
【4】听到H1N1的传播被有效控制的消息,政府决定奖励那些为社会做出巨大贡献的科学家。(measure)

【答案】
【1】 All the people present objected to paying so much for the painting.
【2】 He worked all day without eating anything, which exhausted him.
【3】 How many of you are going to sign up for the school sports meeting next week?
【4】 Hearing the news that effective measures had been taken to prevent H1N1 from spreading, the government decided to reward the scientists who had made great contributions to society.
【解析】
【1】object to doing反对做某事,该用法是固定用法,所以填All the people present objected to paying so much for the painting.
【2】这里含有一个非限制性定语从句,关系词在从句中作主语,指代整个主句内容,that不能引导非限制性定语从句,所以填He worked all day without eating anything, which exhausted him.
【3】sign up for报名参加,该短语是固定短语,表示将要发生的事情,用一般过去时,所以填How many of you are going to sign up for the school sports meeting next week?
【4】这里含有一个同位语从句,引导词在从句中不作任何成分,也没有实际意义,用that引导,所以填Hearing the news that effective measures had been taken to prevent H1N1 from spreading, the government decided to reward the scientists who had made great contributions to society.

Directions: Write an English composition in 120 - 150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.
假设你是育新中学学生王明。你校正开展“绿色校园”主题活动,通过校英语报向全校学生征集有助于节能的建议。你决定向校报投稿,内容包括:
1. 你认为校园里还可以采取哪些措施来达到节能的目的 (1至2个措施)
2. 这些措施如果实施,可以带来怎样的好处。
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

【答案】Dear Editor,
I’m writing to offer some suggestions on the theme campaign of “Green Campus”. The following is what I have worked out for saving energy, the purpose of which is to make our school a better place to study and live in.
As a top priority, it’s necessary for us to take effective measures to protect our campus from pollution and waste. For example, we can call on students to switch off taps and lights after using them to save water and electricity. Secondly, I really suggest building a botanical garden in the school, for not only can it make our campus more beautiful and lively, but also provide us with a close contact with nature so that we may be deeply aware of the importance of energy-saving and protection of environment.
I would appreciate it very much if you could take my advice into account and I would be proud if my advice can be of help to save energy and build a greener campus.
Yours sincerely,
Wang Ming
【解析】
考查应用文中的书信写作。
题目要求假设你是育新中学学生王明。你校正开展“绿色校园”主题活动,通过校英语报向全校学生征集有助于节能的建议。你决定向校报投稿,内容包括:1. 你认为校园里还可以采取哪些措施来达到节能的目的 (1至2个措施)2. 这些措施如果实施,可以带来怎样的好处。分析可知,应该以第一人称为主,一般现在时进行写作。要点已经给出,要求考生根据提纲自己发挥拓展,考生要先想好写哪几点,运用合适的语法规则和词汇把各要点都准确表述出。描述要尽量选择简洁的语言,难点在于选择词汇和句型,可以灵活运用高级词汇和固定短语准确表述。还要用适当的连接词把句子连接起来,这样文章显得更连贯。

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